RF rotary joints are also known as radiofrequency rotary joints. They make up the electromechanical parts or components that are used in transmitting radio frequency signals between the movable and stationary parts of any system. Before we delve further into the application and types of RF rotary joints, let us have a clearer understanding of what a rotary joint is all about.
Rotary joints are the critical components used in the design of different rotational radar systems. They can also be referred to as electromechanical devices that provide the critical interface between the different sections of a rotating radar system and other stationary components. Rotary joints allow the easy transmission of signals to and fro the ground components and the antenna with minimal distortions.
Rotary joints are designed to function as a passive and rotating transmission line that is capable of transmitting direct current and radiofrequency signals with low degradation. They can be in the form of a single 1 channel, which is about an inch long, or they may be complicated in the form of 73 channels, which is about 16 feet long.
More about RF Rotary joints
As earlier stated, RF rotary joints are responsible for transmitting radio frequency signals between the rotating and stationary parts of a system. When used in some applications, an unmovable RF line is usually connected to the movable components in a system. An example of this is an aviation radar where there is a constant rotation of the radar antenna that maintains a firm connection to the stationary ground system with the aid of a cable.
One of the key reasons why a rotary joint is used in this sense is due to the fact that they provide minimal losses and low-performance variation. They also make it easy for these types of connections to be made without distortions when rotating.
Classification of RF Rotary Joints
RF rotary joints can be classified into three broad categories which include the following:
· Coaxial RF Rotary Joints
Coaxial rotary joints are designed with output terminals and coaxial inputs. In coaxial rotary joints, the two connectors are divided into a rotating and a stationary part. However, there is a restriction of the frequency range and handling capacity of the coaxial rotary joints due to a set limit required for frequency and power.
· Waveguide RF Rotary Joints
A waveguide is a type of RF rotary joint that is designed with a waveguide type of interface at both the output and input terminals. Just like the coaxial RF Rotary joints, one of the terminals is fixed while the other is stationary. The size of the waveguide, however, limits the frequency of operation under the waveguide rotary joints.
· Coaxial to waveguide RF rotary joint
This is another type of radiofrequency rotary joints that incorporates the principles of both coaxial and waveguide rotary joints. They are built with a coaxial interface on one terminal, while the other is designed with a waveguide interface at the second terminal. Since this type of RF rotary joint is built with an integration of the principles of both coaxial and waveguide rotary joints, they are therefore limited by the size of the waveguide as well as power/frequency.
· Coaxial to waveguide RF joints
They are regarded as true devices that work with the principle of electromechanical operation. They are designed to give equal considerations to both the electrical and mechanical parts of a system. One significant feature of RF rotary devices is that other equipment such as slip rings (power rotating and low-frequency joints), gears, optical encoders (devices used in measuring angular positions), motors, etc. can be fully integrated into the assembly of rotary joints.
Features and specifications of RF Rotary Joints
There is a difference in the features and specifications of most RF rotary joints. They can be designed with materials made of bronze, copper, aluminum, specialty steels, bimetallic alloys, especially clad, and stainless steel. Some critical specifications used in the design of RF rotary joints include length, size, flange size, wall thickness, voltage and wave standing ratio, style, and type.
The specifications of an RF rotary joint determine the performance, durability, and efficiency of the system. Hence it is critical for you to make your selection based on the required output as well as the design parameters of the RF rotary joint.
Some several components and mechanisms make up the features of RF rotary joints. Most RF rotary joints are built with ceramic ball bearings to limit friction in the rotating part of the system. They are effective in providing good resistance to water, which also helps to prevent or reduce corrosion.
Another unique feature of the RF rotary joint is that it can limit dust entry into the internal components. Many advance modifications have been carried out to improve their overall performance and lifespan. Some of the advanced features that come with recently built RF rotary joint models include high pressure, water submersion, sizeable spectral range, miniature systems, multi-fiber cables, and a high RPM value to increase the speed of rotation.
In terms of noise production, when operational, RF rotary joints have over 45decibels return loss as well as a 2-decibel maximum loss of insertion.
Applications of RF rotary joints
The application of RF rotary joints cut across different industries. They are used in the field of communication, satellite, microwave design, defense, security, medicine, and aerospace. They also find usefulness in military and commercial applications. RF rotary joints are often used in the manufacture of flexible or twisted cables, transitions as well as custom assemblies. They are also applied in the termination of low and high power.
Some specific applications like airborne systems, traffic control, vehicle mounting, and ground-based radar make use of RF rotary joints. Different areas of application include telecommunication, image transmission, high-speed networking, and control data transmission.
RF rotary joints play a significant role in virtually all areas of manufacturing, communication, and defense. They are built according to international standards to ensure high performance, safety, and durability. When selecting RF rotary joint, ensure that you get the right spec so that you may be able to get the desired output.